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Recent Catalogues of Indonesian Manuscripts : A Review

Published in Bidjdragen, tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde 164.2/3 2008

Sri Ratna Saktimulya (ed.), Katalog Naskah-naskah Perpustakaan Pura Pakualaman. Jakarta: Yayasan Obor Indonesia and the Toyota Foundation, 2005, xix + 314 pp. ISBN 9794615234. Paperback.

Achadiati Ikram (ed.), Katalog Naskah Palembang/Catalogue of Palembang Manuscripts. Tokyo: Centre for Documentation and Area-Transcultural Studies, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies, 2004, 324 pp. ISBN 492524308X. Paperback.

M. Yusuf (ed.), Katalogus Manuskrip dan Skriptorium Minangkabau. Tokyo: Centre for Documentation and Area-Transcultural Studies, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies, 2006, ix + 295 pp. ISBN 4925243209. Paperback.

Oman Fathurahman and Munawar Holil (eds), Katalog Naskah Ali Hasjmy Aceh/Catalogue of Aceh Manuscripts: Ali Hasjmy Collection. Tokyo: Centre for Documentation and Area-Transcultural Studies, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies, 2007, xv + 304 pp. ISBN 4925243285. Paperback.

Dick van der Meij

Universitas Islam Negeri Syarif Hidayatullah, Jakarta

Indonesian manuscript collections are scattered over libraries and museums around the globe and a good number of them have been catalogued in the past or are in the process of being catalogued.1 Manuscripts in many Indonesian public libraries and semi-public collections have also been catalogued, some of them through an extensive project funded by the Ford Foundation in the 1980s and 1990s. As for collections outside Indonesia, catalogues have in many cases been published by well-known publishers, making them easy to come by. Catalogues published in Indonesia, though, are usually available for only a short time in local bookshops and thereafter disappear from bookstore shelves forever. It is therefore advisable to purchase these catalogues as soon as they see the light.

In addition to catalogues, many small collections and at times even single manuscripts have been described in scholarly journals. Sometimes they appear in unexpected journals and are therefore in danger of escaping the notice of researchers (for instance: Yamamoto and Lingga 1990).

In the last couple of years four catalogues of semi-public and private col­lections in Java and Sumatra have been published with grants from Japan. The Pakualaman catalogue was sponsored by the Toyota Foundation, whereas the other three on Sumatran collections were sponsored by the 21st Century Centre of Excellence Programme of the Centre for Documentation and Area-Transcultural Studies of Tokyo University of Foreign Studies. It is easy to see that Indonesian catalogue productions are indeed international matters: after the Dutch took the first steps during the Dutch East Indies era and well beyond, other Europeans followed; the task was subsequently taken up by Americans, mostly through the Ford Foundation, while at present efforts are increasingly undertaken by Japanese institutions. The catalogues produced in all these projects more and more often result from intensive cooperation between Indonesian and foreign experts.

It is extremely important to have semi-public and private collections catalogued and their contents made available to a wide audience of scholars and interested students of culture and literature. Many conclusions about manuscripts and literary competencies in Indonesian areas are based on studies restricted to public manuscript collections (whether outside or inside Indonesia). These conclusions are sometimes highly speculative, as the situa­tion in which, in many areas, manuscripts are/were made and how they are/ were used is often unknown due to lack of in-depth research into the matter.

The importance of the fact that many manuscripts are kept in collections by people in their own private surroundings cannot be underestimated. Knowledge about these private collections adds enormously to our under­standing of the significance and popularity of texts now and in the past. Taking private collections into consideration adds to our quantitative knowl­edge about the materials collected and preserved in public collections.

Another issue is that browsing public collections alone may provide a distorted picture of the manuscript reality in Indonesian areas. It is very hard to tell whether or not a collection is representative of the local situation. Scholars have insufficient information at their disposal as to why people who donated their collections to public libraries themselves collected the manuscripts they had and when and how they were acquired. We also have little understanding of the purchasing dynamics of libraries and the reasons why certain manuscripts were deemed fit for acquisition and not others. It is not hard to predict what will be purchased when a library is faced with the choice between a beautifully written, probably complete manuscript and an ugly and seemingly incomplete one. Even though the second may be much more interesting for scholars than the first, few libraries will be able to resist buying the first instead of the second, especially if no in-depth research on the texts contained in them has been conducted. Personal relationships and preferences may have been more decisive in the buying process than the care­ful building up of a representative collection. In the past, when conservators of manuscripts were themselves scholars, they of course brought their own preferences to the job and tended to acquire those manuscripts they wanted to study themselves or those that reflected their scholarly tastes. Tastes and interests, however, change over time and we usually do not have adequate insight into particular purchases or, much more interesting, the number and kind of manuscripts that were rejected by individuals and institutions and therefore returned to obscurity.

Private collections abound all over Indonesia. This is the case in Bali, where manuscripts continue to be written to this day and important col­lections are preserved in the palaces and houses of nobles and high priests, not to mention smaller and larger collections belonging to other private individuals. This is also the case among the Sasak and Balinese communities in Lombok (Van der Meij 1994; 2002:166-170); in South Sulawesi among the Buginese and Makassarese (Mukhlis Paeni 2003); in Buton (Achadiati Ikram 2002); and among the various peoples of Sumatra; while on Java and Madura manuscripts in palace and private hands are preserved in great numbers as well. Unlike the situation in other parts of the world, it may very well be that in Indonesia significantly more manuscripts are privately owned rather than kept in public and semi-public collections, the most important of which are the Perpustakaan Nasional in Jakarta, Universitas Indonesia, British and other European collections, the various palaces and residences of princes and nobles in Java and Bali, and the Leiden collections, which for many Indonesians have attained legendary status.

Before going into detail about each of the catalogues under review, some remarks pertaining to all the catalogues may be useful. Firstly, all the catalogues contain many photos of manuscripts. However, why these par­ticular photos are included and not photos of other manuscripts is nowhere explained. Sometimes this leads to such questions as: on page 144 of the Palembang catalogue, why was the sword not portrayed? I was surprised to see a sword being considered a manuscript, so it would have interested me to see an illustration of it. The notion of 'manuscript' in this collection evidently extends to artefacts that are not usually regarded as manuscripts at all. Secondly, the physical condition of the manuscripts is described in a vari­ety of terms ranging from 'good' to 'extremely bad'. Indonesian codicology needs to explain terms more carefully, and to use standardized terminology to describe physical conditions so that these may be more accurately gleaned from the description. For instance, in the Aceh catalogue, manuscripts that have been eaten by woodworm, contain holes, or have suffered wear and tear are variously called tidak terlalu baik (not too good, p. 77), kurang baik (poor, pp. 39, 43), rusak (damaged, p. 29), or rusak parah (extremely damaged, p. 16), even though the general descriptions of the condition of the manuscripts do not differ much. The Minangkabau catalogue uses slightly different vocabu­lary for this (apart from rusak, which is found in all the catalogues), such as cukup baik (reasonably good, p. 57), mulai rusak (starting to get damaged, p. 61), sangat buruk (very bad, p. 35), rusak berat (extremely damaged, p. 70), and, the most revealing designations, masih bagus (still OK, p. 80), masih cukup baik (still reasonably good, p. 73), and masih baik (still good, p. 87). By using the word masih (still), the editor seems to suggest that deterioration may happen at any time, and since the other catalogues also use the expression they evi­dently share this point of view. Curiously, the catalogue of the Pakualaman collection does not mention the condition of manuscripts at all, probably for diplomatic and deferential reasons. It is a pity, though, that the condition of the manuscripts at the palace, where one would expect standards of preserva­tion to be higher, cannot be compared to that of manuscripts preserved in far less favourable conditions.

The evaluation of the condition of a manuscript is of course subjective and may depend on one's mood and one's overall assessment of a collection. It may moreover change over time, as one gains more experience in a specific kind of manuscript and as one becomes more tolerant. A better idea might be to indicate the consequences of the extent of damage and deterioration in terms of the manuscript's suitability for a possible text edition. If an indica­tion could be given of the amount of text that has become illegible or lost, a prospective editor would have some idea as to whether it is worthwhile to take the trouble of consulting the manuscript at all. A more standardized and less impressionistic assessment of condition might also be useful for restora­tion purposes and result in suggestions for improved preservation, an issue not addressed in any of the catalogues discussed here.

The editors of the Aceh catalogue seem to see a relationship between the physical condition of a manuscript and the number of empty pages found in it (for example, pp. 34, 63, 101) which I fail to see. We do not know precisely how manuscripts were made, so the empty pages may be there for a reason we do not yet grasp and may therefore have no relevance for an assessment of the manuscript's condition. The editor of the Palembang catalogue confuses the condition of a manuscript and the loss of pages. A manuscript may be in excellent condition even though half of it is gone. And a manuscript may be crucial for an understanding of codicological and other scriptorial features while being completely worthless for a text edition.

Since collections and scriptoria have become more and more of a focus in manuscript studies, it is a pity that so little information about the owners and the way they collected their manuscripts, and how they preserve and use them, is offered in the present books. Only minimal information is provided about the scriptoria in Minangkabau and the surau (prayer houses) in which they are preserved up to the present, and information is completely lacking about the owners of the manuscripts catalogued. The fifty manuscripts found, for example, in surau Paseban in Kecamatan Koto Tangah, Kota Padang, are mentioned, but only the number of manuscripts preserved there is indicated, and none of their titles, so that the information is rather useless at this stage. The same holds for the other surau mentioned. No biographical information is given about Ali Hasjmy, even though he was himself interested in manu­scripts and wrote about Acehnese and Malay literature (for example: Hasjmy 1976, 1977,1984). He was, moreover, a member of the Pujangga Baru literary circle, and has no fewer than forty titles to his name. Information about the owners in Palembang is minimal. The Pura Pakualaman is apparently consid­ered to be so well known that no information on it is provided. I think this is a missed opportunity, and may be due to too little time spent on reflecting on the projects' expected outcomes.

Perpustakaan Pura Pakualaman

In 1931, Ki Hadjar Dewantara wrote the following about literature and the literary tradition in the Pakualaman court:

If up to now the general public has been left unaware of this beautiful tradition, this has to be understood, in my view, as reflecting the high level of religious de­votion among the people belonging to the Pakualaman court. They would have considered it profane to publish the texts passed down to them, and none would have dared to take responsibility for this.2

Apparently the people of the Pakualaman palace have subsequently shed their shyness, and opened up their literary heritage for the benefit of the interested public.3

When Girardet (1983) inventoried the manuscripts in the library of the Pakualaman palace in Yogyakarta in the 1980s, he encountered 195 manu­scripts. The present catalogue of the same collection contains not 195, but 251 manuscripts, since many that were in the hands of the extended Pakualaman family have since been deposited in the library. However, other manuscripts he found have not been rediscovered and are therefore not included in the present catalogue, the material for which was assembled between December 2002 and November 2003. This phenomenon - a listed manuscript that is no longer to be found in a private or semi-public collection - is a recurrent one in Indonesia. It is usually seen as negative (as if outsiders have any right to make demands on private collections to begin with!), but I suggest viewing it from a different angle. Perhaps the manuscript is not lost at all, but was not present in the collection at the time the catalogue was compiled because it was being used. This would point to a continuation of a living text tradition, and should therefore be viewed positively.

In the catalogue the manuscripts have been categorized as follows: Babad (historical and legendary texts), Islam, Piwulang (suluk and texts containing lessons and instruction), Primbon (divination), Sastra (stories derived from Islamic and pre-Islamic times), and Lain-lain (others, including texts on dance and music, customs and language, and so on). The catalogue follows a tested scheme and mentions title, shelf number, language and script, prose or poetry, number of pages and lines per page, dimensions, and writing materi­als used. If a manuscript contains a poetic text, the names of the verse forms and the first two lines of each verse form are provided. Each description also offers a summary of the content, and information about the time of writing and the history of the manuscript, if available.

The catalogue is a sound piece of work, offers photos of stunningly beautiful manuscripts, and provides researchers with the initial information required for planning a future study. It also gives a useful overview of the contents of the collection as a whole. What is unfortunately lacking is some information about how the collection was put together over the years.

The C-DATS-TUFS catalogues

The three catalogues that follow are the result of projects by the Centre for Documentation and Area-Transcultural Studies of the Tokyo University of Foreign Studies (C-DATS-TUFS), founded in 2002. TUFS has the largest collection of historical materials in Asian and African languages in Japan. It aspires to collect and preserve materials in Asian and African languages and to make them available to the whole world through computer networks. In preparing catalogues of Indonesian collections it cooperates with the Yayasan Naskah Nusantara (YANASSA) and the Masyarakat Naskah Nusantara (MAN ASS A). Apart from cataloguing efforts, the manuscripts are also digitalized. The website ( mentions that the digitalization has resulted in 175 CD-ROMS. In addition to the Indonesian title, the catalogues have also been provided with an English title, even though the books are written in Indonesian without accompanying English translation.

Katalog Naskah Palembang

This is the first catalogue to be published in the framework of the C-DATS-TUFS projects. Its main editor is Achadiati Ikram, one of Indonesia's outstanding philologists and chairperson of YANASSA. In this project she was assisted by no fewer than thirteen people, all of whom are involved in manuscript studies at various universities and at the Indonesian National Library.

The catalogue proper is preceded by an introduction that mentions that the core team members of the project visited Palembang in July 2003 to con­sult the collections that had been selected for inclusion in the project before their arrival. Apparently more collections are available than the ones chosen. What other collections there are and why some collections were chosen and not others are not explained, unfortunately.

The book gives some information about the individuals who own the man­uscripts. Three of them are related to descendants of the Palembang Sultans; one of them, R.H. Mas Syafei Prabu Diraja, is the inheritor of the Sultanate. Owners of religious manuscripts are usually of Arab descent, work as religious instructors (guru mengaji), and have very few resources to properly store man­uscripts. The names and addresses of thirteen owners are mentioned, leaving the reader to imagine who the others - who are only referred to as 'lain-lain', 'others' - might be. This is followed by brief information on the personalities and collections of ten of the thirteen individuals. Unfortunately, here again, the reader is left to wonder who the others are and what their collections are about. Some photos showing how manuscripts are stored, and portraits of thirteen of the owners, enliven the catalogue and provide the collections with a human face: manuscripts are human-made and human-owned.

For each manuscript is listed: title, language and script, prose or poetry, number of pages and number of lines per page, dimensions, and kind of paper used. Each manuscript has been given two codes. One code indicates the collection and the number of the manuscript in that collection. The manu­scripts are not listed by owner but rather by category. The second code thus starts with an abbreviation of the category of the manuscript, the number in that category, and an abbreviation of the name of the owner. Seventeen cate­gories have been used: Astronomi (astronomy, As), Bahasa (language, Bh), Doa (prayers, Do), Fikih (jurisprudence, Fk), Hadis (Hadith, Hd), Hikayat (prose fiction, Hk), Ilmu Kalam (theology, IK), Lain-lain (others, LL), Obat-Obatan (medicine, OB), Primbon (divination, Pr), Qur'an (Qr), Sejarah (history, Sj), Silsilah (genealogy, SI), Surat (letters, Sy), Syair (poetry, Sr), Tasawuf (Sufism, Ts), and Wayang (shadow theatre, Wy). In the catalogue individual letters have been treated as full manuscripts. Because of this rather complicated system, putting together the collections of each individual owner is a puzzle, since no lists are provided of manuscripts preserved in the same collection. This makes the catalogue inconvenient for scholars interested in collections rather than in specific manuscripts.

The last part of the introduction deals with writers, scribes and scriptoria and is a useful place to start. As with so many writing traditions in the archi­pelago, we still have enormous gaps in our knowledge, so that any informa­tion is welcome.

Katalogus manuskrip dan skriptorium Minangkabau

In West Sumatra there are still hundreds of manuscripts in private hands, and no fewer than 26 private and semi-private collections are catalogued in this book. Some general information about ownership and ways of transmission is provided.

Previously it was thought that the literary tradition of Minangkabau was overwhelmingly oral and that there were only 371 extant manuscripts, which were kept in Europe (mainly in Leiden) and in the Indonesian National Library (p. 3), and that no others existed. In the present book 280 more manuscripts have been added to that number, letters being regarded as full manuscripts. Most of the letters are in the possession of private individuals, whereas other manuscripts are usually owned by descendants of princely families in the Minangkabau area. The manuscripts are usually written by people connected to prayer houses or by teachers of mystic brotherhoods, tarekat (p. 21). The manuscripts in the collections catalogued are overwhelm­ingly of an Islamic nature (90 per cent of them are in the hands of religious teachers and prayer houses of mystic brotherhoods, p. 21) and the manu­scripts have been categorized as follows: Qur'an, Tafsir Qur'an (Quranic exe­gesis), Kitab Tasaufdan Tauhid (Sufism and doctrine of the unity of God), Fiqih (jurisprudence), Undang-undang (Tambo Adat) Minangkabau (Minangkabau laws and regulations), Sejarah dan Silsilah (history and genealogy), Surat-surat (letters), Perobatan, Adzimat, dan Ramalan (medicine, amulets and divination), Bahasa Arab (Arabic language), and Khotbah (sermons). Apparently, nowadays manuscripts of a religious nature are seldom opened again, whereas letters and lists of genealogies still are, and the number of people still engaged in copying and writing manuscripts can be counted on the fingers of one hand.

Photos of Surau Paseban, Surau Bintungan Tinggi, Surau Batang Kapet, and the Istana Made Rubiah di Lunang are included, in addition to a very long manuscript from Inderapura and its owner. Many manuscripts have been photographed as well, and many photos illustrate the descriptions. Unfortunately, there are no photos of the owners.

The listing of manuscripts uses a numbering system devised specifi­cally for this catalogue. The numbers contain the code MM for Manuskrip Minangkabau, a code for the classification of the manuscripts as mentioned above, the name of the owner, and a number indicating the place of the man­uscript in the collection. For each manuscript is given: title, content, owner, scribe, colophon, watermark, and the beginning and end of the text.

Katalog naskah All Hasjmy Aceh

If the Leiden collections are legendary among Indonesians, it is safe to say that the collection put together by Prof. Tengku H. Ali Hasjmy (1914-1998) is legendary among Acehnese. The collection is preserved in the Yayasan Pendidikan dan Museum Ali Hasjmy (YPAH) in Banda Aceh. 314 manuscripts were collected in a very short time, between 1992 and 1995 (p. vii).

The editors' introduction discusses the effect the 26 December 2004 earth­quake and subsequent tsunami had on the manuscript collections preserved in Aceh. The collections of the Pusat Dokumentasi dan Informasi Aceh (PDIA) and the Balai Kajian Sejarah dan Nilai Tradisional and those kept in private col­lections in the area destroyed by the tsunami were completely and irretriev­ably lost. This means that the collections of the Museum Negeri Propinsi and the YPAH are still extant. How many manuscripts were lost due to this single catastrophic event is anyone's guess, but I fear they are many. This tragic event shows clearly and unequivocally that manuscripts are vulnerable. Certainly a large part of the written Acehnese tradition has been lost.

As a result of the tsunami, the TUFS Aceh Project for the Preservation of Cultural Heritage was set up in March 2005 to catalogue private collections of manuscripts in Aceh which were not easily accessible to a wider public. The present catalogue is the first catalogue of Acehnese manuscripts to see the light and others are planned.

The manuscripts are categorized as follows: Qur'an, Hadis, Tafsir (exege­sis), Tauhid (doctrine of God's unity), Fikih (jurisprudence), Tasawuf (Sufism), Tatabahasa (grammar), Zikir dan Doa (prayers), Hikayat (prose fiction), and Lain-lain (others), and are grouped in this way in the catalogue. The intro­duction is excellent and provides a detailed description of how the catalogue was put together. The information provided for each manuscript is: title, shelf number, language, number of pages, kind of paper used, prose or poetry, dimensions, and number of lines per page. Information on condition and authorship is sometimes given, and for a number of manuscripts content summaries are added. The book ends with photos of the late Mr Ali Hasjmy and his institute.

One thing I find curious is unfortunately not explained. All the manu­scripts have been assigned a new code to replace the code they had in the YPAH. Why? In general I am not in favour of replacing an existing number­ing system. It usually gives rise to enormous problems of identification, for instance, when numbers are lost in the manuscript for whatever reason, when lists of old numbers and corresponding new ones are lost, or when the new numbers do not adequately match up with the old numbering system. This has been catastrophic, for instance, for the collection in the Museum NTB (Nusa Tenggara Barat) in Ampenan-Mataram, Lombok, and there are other instances as well. Luckily, in the present catalogue, both numbers have been included so that matching should not be a problem. In the case of the YPAH collection, many manuscripts apparently had no number at all (curiously, none of the Quranic ones had) and it would be interesting to know why.

Another point of interest not addressed is how the collection was acquired. The editors note that most of the manuscripts are of a religious nature, but may this perhaps simply be due to the fact that Mr Hasjmy was more inter­ested in those? The reader is left with many questions unanswered, whereas answers might have been found if the right questions had been posed during the investigative part of the cataloguing process.

Jajat Burhanudin provided the chapter 'Naskah dan Tradisi Intelektual-Keagamaan di Aceh' ('Manuscripts and the religio-intellectual tradition in Aceh'). It is a useful initial introduction, but I fear he has downplayed the role of fiction and other texts in favour of those of a religious character. I cannot believe that the entire Acehnese literary corpus was solely Islamic inspired, which is more or less suggested here. Much more research is needed to understand the exact nature of this literary tradition.


The catalogues reviewed here are useful and beautifully produced tools for further research in philology, codicology, and of course textual studies. They show admirably that many manuscripts are still 'out there' and that the knowledge we have of collections, collectors, and scriptoria is still in its infancy. If similar catalogues of manuscripts in private hands in Bali and Lombok, for instance, were to be compiled, they would need to be printed in multiple volumes, because thousands and thousands of manuscripts in hundreds and hundreds of collections are there waiting to be covered. For Bali alone, we need only think of the valuable information provided in the transliterations of Balinese manuscripts in the famous 'Proyek Tik' collection initiated by C. Hooykaas and continued by Hedi Hinzler in close cooperation with the late I Gusti Ngurah Ketut Sangka and presently with I Dewa Cede Catra. The number of collections and owners covered in this project is astounding, yet it forms only a small part of the collections existing on the island. It makes one ponder once more the richness of Indonesia's literary traditions.

The descriptions of the manuscripts are interesting for a number of rea­sons apart from the obvious ones. They reveal the way manuscripts are treat­ed and preserved, and indicate most alarmingly that many of the manuscripts are seriously damaged or otherwise in very poor condition and are preserved in unfavourable circumstances. This means that action is needed to ensure that the manuscripts survive. Edwin Wieringa's remark, in the introduction to the Aceh catalogue (p. v), that the next step should be to photograph the manuscripts in their entirety is therefore pertinent and ought to be taken up by the Indonesian and international community as a priority. However, in all our efforts to catalogue, preserve and conserve manuscripts, we should not forget to edit, translate, and explain them as well. This too should be a prior­ity for the Indonesian and international communities.

The fact that in the compilation of these catalogues many local scholars, from Universitas Gadjah Mada Yogyakarta, Universitas Sriwijaya (Palembang), Universitas Andalas (Padang, Minangkabau), IAIN Imam Bonjol (Padang, Minangkabau) and LAIN Al-Raniri (Aceh), cooperated with scholars from the Universitas Indonesia and the Pusat Pengkajian Islam dan Masyarakat (PPIM) Universitas Islam Negeri Syarif Hidayarullah, and from MANASSA and YANASSA, offers hope for increasing understanding and appreciation of the Indonesian scriptural heritage, and for future text editions.


Chambert-Loir, Henri and Oman Fathurahman

1999 Khazanah naskah; Panduan koleksi naskah Indonesia sedunia/World guide to
Indonesian manuscript collections. Jakarta: Yayasan Obor Indonesia and

Dewantara, Ki Hadjar

1967 'Beoefening van letteren en kunst in het Pakoealamsche geslacht', in:
Karya Ki Hadjar Dewantara, bagian II A: Kebudajaan. Jogjakarta: Madjelis-
Luhur Persatuan Taman-Siswa.

Girardet, N.

1983 Descriptive catalogue of the Javanese manuscripts and printed books in the
main libraries ofSurakarta and 'Yogyakarta. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner.

Hasjmy, A.

1976 Syarah Ruba'i Hamzah Fansuri oleh Syamsuddin al-Sumatrani. Kuala Lum­
pur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.

1977 Apa sebab rakyat Aceh sanggup berperang puluhan tahun melawan agressi
Belanda. Jakarta: Bulan Bintang. [Edition of the Acehnese Syair Perang

1984 'Hamzah Fansuri sastrawan Sufi abad XVII', in: Abdul Hadi W.M. and
L.K. Ara (eds), Hamzah Fansuri penyair Sufi Aceh; Buku peringatan Malam
Hamzah Fansuri 22 Ogos di Taman Ismail Marzuki, pp. 5-11. Jakarta: Lot-

Ikram, Achadiati

2002 Katalog naskah Buton koleksi Abdul Mulku Zahari. Jakarta: Manassa.

Meij, Th.C. van der

1994 Troyek pendataan/pemetaan keberadaan naskah Lontar Lombok; Gen­
eral report'. Unpublished report for the Indonesian National Library.

2002 Puspakrema; A Javanese romance from Lombok. Leiden: Research School of

Asian, African, and Amerindian Studies, Universiteit Leiden. Mukhlis Paeni

2003 Katalog induk naskah-naskah Nusantara: Sulawesi Selatan. Jakarta: Arsip


Yamamoto, Haruki, and Andareas S. Lingga
1990 'Catalogue of the Batak manuscripts in the Simalungun Museum', Nam-

po-Bunka; Tenri Bulletin of South Asian Studies 17 (November):l-18.


1 For a detailed overview of collections of Indonesian manuscripts in the world, see Chamber-Loir and Fathurahman 1999.

2 Dewantara 1967:284. Translated from the Dutch; originally published in an anniversary bro­chure dedicated to H.H. Kangjeng Gusti Pangeran Adipati Arya Paku Alam VII.

3 The present catalogue does not describe all the manuscripts belonging to the Pakualaman library. The reasons for selecting some for cataloguing, and not others, are not mentioned.

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